WEED CONTROL, 4 GOOD OPTIONS FOR BUR REED
Bur Reed, sparganium, is a flowering perennial weed that grows in the shallows of marshes, ponds and streams. There are 9 different species of Bur Reed in the United States.
Bur Reed has long, narrow alternating leaves that may be floating or emersed, erect or limp. It spreads from detached rhizomes and seed from spherical flower heads. Seed survival is not high.
Bur Reed does provide both food and habitat for nesting wildlife.
4 good options for control:
Endothall is a fast-acting contact option best applied early summer when submersed weeds are 12-14” tall and water temperature is 65°F or warmer. Repeat treatment may be needed to make good contact with all of the foliage.
Diquat is a second fast-acting contact option that can be applied any time good contact with the foliage can be made. Again, repeat treatment may be needed to make good contact with all of the foliage.
Glyphosate is an excellent mid-season systemic option. Application is best made when spherical flowers appear. Repeat treatment may be needed to kill the entire rhizome.
Rhizomes are easily uprooted. Dispose far from shoreline to prevent re-growth. Regular cutting will also reduce the amount of growth.
Cattle & livestock will eat Bur Reed. This is not a normal biological control option but it will significantly reduce the amount of growth. Grass Carp will also eat Bur Reed. It is not their first choice but they will consume it if there is nothing else available.
Reduction of sunlight and/or reduction of water level will both impact weed growth. Water level should be reduced to dry out for a period of 2-3 months.
Water Buttercup, Water Crowfoot (ranunculus aquatilis), is one perennial weed in the Buttercup family that has 360 different species. It can be found world-wide in the quiet waters of ponds, in ditches and along the shoreline of lakes and slow moving streams.
Water Buttercup is eaten by a variety of waterfowl and fish. It also provides habitat for aquatic insects.
It has 2 distinct types of leaves. Submersed leaves are alternately attached, fan-shaped with fine thread-like leaves that collapse when removed from the water. Floating leaves, when present, are flat and have 3-5 scalloped lobes. It has a single flower on a stiff stalk that rises above the water surface. The flower has a yellow center and 5 white petals that bloom from April to August.
Water Buttercup propagates from seeds and stem fragments.
Water Buttercup can grow in thick dense mats that will restrict water recreation including boating, swimming and fishing.
Physical removal and chemical treatment are 2 good options.
1) Physical removal can be easily obtained by cutting or raking out all the weed fragments.
2) Chemically control area with diquat.
Diquat mixed with a non-ionic surfactant is an excellent fast-acting contact option. Addition of copper ethanolamine will often improve effectiveness in difficult to control areas.
We recommend, 30 oz. of WEEDTRINE-D Liquid with 3 oz. CYGNET PLUS Liquid or combine 18 oz. of WEEDTRINE-D Liquid, 4 oz. of CUTRINE-PLUS Liquid and 3 oz. of CYGNET PLUS Liquid. Add enough water to the concentrate to make 1½ gallons of spray solution. 1½ gallons of solution will treat 1,000 sq. ft. (100’ x 10’). It is best to treat before flowering. Repeat treatment may be needed to make good contact with all the foliage.
A customer recently contacted us regarding lake weed & algae control. Below is his question and our response.
For years I have been waiting for you to include Cabomba or Carolina Fanwort in your printed catalog so I could show my fellow pond residents that particular species is recognized invasive up here in MA. I have one neighbor in particular who claims the weed has been in the pond her whole life so she thinks it belongs here. She does not accept that it is a non native species that was introduced many years ago. I need you to list that species not only in your catalog but also on your website so I can direct my neighbors to your site to prove what I have been trying to tell them for 13 years.
Fanwort, cabomba is an invasive aquatic exotic perennial that primarily spreads by stem fragmentation of rhizomes that threatens inland lakes and ponds. It can overtake native plants, have an impact on native animals and reduce recreational water activities such as boating, swimming and fishing.
Fanwort is native to South America, it is a popular aquarium plant and thought to have been brought to the U.S. through the aquarium trade.
Fanwort has intricate fan shaped leaves with white-pink floating flowers. Submersed leaves secrete a sticky mucous which covers the foliage. It is very aggressive and can rapidly force out native aquatic plants in depths up to 3 feet. Fanwort reproduces from small fragments that may survive free floating up to 8 weeks. Once the invasive species takes root it can be hard to eradicate.
Chemical options know to be effective are fluridone, 2,4-d and diquat
Furidone is a systemic herbicide that is only effective when it is treated at 10-20 ppb.
2,4-d is a systemic herbicide that is absorbed and moves within the weed. It is used with a high degree of success. After treatment with 2,4-d, all Cabomba is killed.
Diquat, is a contact herbicide that acts quickly and will kill the foliage it touches.
When using liquid contact herbicides, thorough coverage of the weeds' foliage is necessary for good results. Inject underwater with a pressure sprayer for foliage beneath the surface. Apply on a calm, sunny day. Do not treat if rain is expected within 8 hours.
Physical removal works by hand pulling. This option works before Fanwort takes hold and only a few weeds need removal.
Drawdown works if the target area can truly be completely dried and/or frozen for at least one month. This is hard to do because muck sediments often stay moist and protect the weed root systems and allowing considerable survival.
There are no biological controls for this species.
Prevention is key, always check to make sure there aren’t plants attached to your boat or trailer before you enter or exit your lake or pond.
Invasion of Pretty Purple Flower.
That pretty plant flowering in your pond may be an invasive pond weed! It seems so healthy and abundant, yet you can’t remember planting it there. Water Hyacinth is sold in nurseries but will easily spread from ornamental ponds to adjoining wetlands.
Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a beautiful floating weed originally from Brazil that was introduced as an ornamental pond plant in the early 1900’s.
Water Hyacinth has lavender flowers on a long dense spike. The plant can grow to be 3 feet tall, and it has dark green round shiny leaves that are held above the water by an inflated ball which floats on the water surface. These balls and leaves form in clusters, with purplish roots that dangle free below the weed. Water Hyacinth reproduces from seed.
This pretty flowering plant is considered by many scientists as the worst invasive weed in the world.
Water Hyacinth can destroy native wetlands, kill native fish and other wildlife. Children and livestock may be in danger of drowning as they become entangled in the roots. The heavy mats also create a haven for mosquitoes that can spread Encephalitis.
Large mats of Water Hyacinth will ruin water recreation by blocking waterways, clogging boat engines and degrading swimming and fishing areas.
The best way to prevent this invasive pond weed from spreading is to avoid planting them in your ornamental garden. If you begin to see the species in your pond or lakefront, physically/mechanically remove them before they flower and set seed.
Once well-established, biological and herbicide treatment are a good method for removal. Aquacide Pellets are a systemic herbicide that will kill the roots. You can also use Weedtrine-D as a fast acting contact herbicide, or Restore Liquid to treat the entire pond. Biological and/or herbicide control should be used in conjunction with physical/mechanical removal. Before using any herbicide, read the label and follow label recommendations.
Just like the 1958 science fiction classic movie “The Blob”, Giant Salvinia burst onto the scene in the United States, becoming one of the world’s worst invasive aquatic plants. In 1998 Giant Salvinia was recognized as a U.S. problem when eradication was resisted near Houston, Texas. Giant Salvinia has an “explosive” growth rate and can easily double in size in just a few days.
Native to Southern Brazil, Giant Salvinia is now found in India, South East Asia, Africa, New Guinea, Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, New Zealand and a host of other countries including the United States.
Biologists believe Giant Salvinia was introduced by the aquarium and garden pond industry, which probably distributed it as an ornamental, not knowing of its invasive potential.
Giant Salvinia is a free-floating fern with small elliptical leaves, green to brownish-green in color. Upper leaves are covered with rows of white bristly hairs. It reproduces new branches developed from lateral buds and through vegetative fragmentation. These dense mats form rapidly and are distributed quite easily by wind and wave action.
This rapid growth can severely reduce oxygen supply into the water. This decrease of oxygen can be stressful and even detrimental to fish and other aquatic organisms. This reduction in aquatic life will severely impact the area for waterfowl. Giant Salvinia also provides an ideal habitat for mosquitoes that can transport disease such as encephalitis and West Nile Virus. It clogs waterways, preventing boating, waterskiing and fishing. Finally, it can have a devastating impact on crop production that use irrigation systems.
At this time, an effective way to control the spread is through herbicide use. Herbicidal control produces control in as little as two weeks. Small-scale outdoor studies have shown diquat, copper, and fluridone are all effective against this weed. It has been noted that young plants are more responsive to most herbicidal techniques that have been tried.
The C. salviniae aquatic weevil, native to Brazil, has also been used successfully for biological control. Adults consume leaves and buds, inhibiting new growth. This helpful weevil has been used successfully in more than 13 countries over 3 continents.
The most effective control of Giant Salvinia and any other invasive aquatic plant is prevention.
When algae becomes overabundant it can lower the recreational and aesthetic qualities in a pond or lake. It can also alter some of the natural pond qualities such as fish habitat. The following chemical options can be used for pond algae removal.
Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate (GreenClean)
This is a fast-acting algaecide, with results noticeable within several hours in the form of algae discoloration from green to a whitish or cream color. Its mode of action is oxidation, producing 100 times its volume of oxygen as it eliminates chlorophyll in the immediate application area. It completely biodegrades into naturally occurring compounds and is non toxic to aquatic life, if used as specified by the manufacturer.
Copper Chelate (Cutrine-Plus)
Copper is also available in a chelated or buffered formulation, which is manufactured as a liquid or granule. This provides some advantages during application. The liquid form needs only to mix with water sprayed over the pond surface. There are no water-use restrictions associated with either formulation of copper chelate. Copper chelate products are less toxic to fish, but should be used cautiously in the presence of trout, koi or ornamental goldfish.
Copper Sulfate (call 800-328-9350 for price quote)
Most species of algae can be controlled with low concentrations of copper sulfate. Available in crystalline nuggets the size of rock salt or as finely ground “snow” grade. Best results are obtained by dissolving in water and spraying it directly on floating algae or injected under the water surface on submersed algae. For larger ponds, crystals can be placed in a burlap bag and towed from a boat through the water. There are no water–use restrictions with Copper Sulfate, when applied at the proper rate. Copper Sulfate is often lethal to trout, goldfish, koi and white amur. This is particularly true in soft water ponds.
Diquat Dibromide (Weedtrine-D Liquid)
This is a contact herbicide that will control lake weeds and some but not all species of Filamentous Algae. It is applied by pouring directly from the container or by diluting with water and injecting below the water surface with a sprayer. It should be applied before growth reaches the surface. Muddy water will deactivate the active ingredient.
Endothall Amine Salts (Hydrothol)
The amine salt formulation of endothall is labeled for lake weed and algae control. It is available as a liquid or granular formulation. It is a contact herbicide and is most effective in waters 65° F and above. Fish are extremely sensitive to this active ingredient. To reduce the potential for killing fish, start applications at the shoreline and move outward so that fish can escape from treated areas. There are water-use restrictions associated with endothall and liquid formulations can cause skin burns.
For complete article see:
Ohio State University, “Controlling Filamentous Algae in Ponds”, William E. Lynch Jr.